Leadership and management have been the focus of
study and attention since the dawn of time. Over time leadership and
management have been seen as separate entities, but those times have
past. It is this paper’s intent to prove that good management is
incumbent upon the success and quality of the leadership that drives it,
and by proxy, so too will poor leadership bring poor management that
will lead to poor results, and decreased levels of success.
the great minds in management theory: Fayol, Taylor, and Weber; homage
being paid to Barnard and Mayo, as well as Maslow, Mintzberg, Drucker
and Porter; to the great minds in leadership development: Jung,
McClelland and Burnham, this paper intends to examine them all and bring
them together as is required in this economy and these times.
time, effort, and money has been placed into the study of both
management and leadership successes. Mintzberg and Drucker have done
some of the best and most informative work at bringing management and
leadership together; now, with the rising costs of overhead and
decreasing profit margins, now is the time to connect the dots, once and
Leadership and management have been the focus of study
and attention since the dawn of time. Reference biblical scripture that
questions the leadership decisions of King David and the managerial
prowess of Moses and his exodus to the “Promised Lands” (Cohen, 2007);
Plato helped us to manage the Republic while Machiavelli helped us to
formulate our idea of what a Prince should represent (Klosko, 1995);
Shakespeare questioned Hamlet’s decision making (Augustine &
Adelman, 1999) and trumpeted Henry IV’s managerial effectiveness
(Corrigan, 1999). John Stuart Mill gave us the “shining city upon a
hill”, while Hegel taught us the “elements of the philosophy of right”
and Marx taught us how to manage a people in his overly popularized (and
oft misunderstood) manifestos (Klosko, 1995). Thomas Payne rewrote
leadership to the basic levels of Common Sense, while Thomas Jefferson
acknowledged that in the management of a people, you must remember that
“all men are created equal” and that they maintain certain degree
of”unalienable Rights”. Countless others have come to the surface over
the span of time, all promoting a new or improved way to both manage and
lead their people. (And hopefully yours, too, if you’re willing to pay
for it.) However, through it all, one thing has remained constant;
people are not autonomous entities that will respond the same to every
situation. People are evolving, thinking, emotionally and socially
aware of all that is around them; they are motivated through different
methods and they are driven by differing levels of success (McClelland
& Burnham, 1995). Over time, leadership and management have been
seen as separate entities, but no more: it is, therefore, this paper’s
intent to prove that good management is incumbent upon the success and
quality of the leadership that drives it, and by proxy, so too will poor
leadership bring poor management that will lead to poor results, and
decreased levels of success. In today’s fast paced environments,
management requires leadership; you cannot have one without the other
and still attain the success that you desire.
management text or publication and you will inevitably come across the
obligatory references to the great minds in management theory: Fayol –
the first to recognize management as a “discipline” to be studied
(Brunsson, 2008), Taylor’s scientific management of industrial work and
workers (Safferstone, 2006), and Weber’s bureaucracy; homage must also
be paid to Barnard, Kotter, Bennis, and Mayo, as well as Maslow,
Mintzberg, Drucker, and Porter (Lamond, 2005). These great minds have
helped to forge the way for the management field and helped to better
management teams across the world. The world of “leadership study”
carries quite the similar pedigree; ironically, it also carries many of
the same names. It is, however, this author’s opinion that many of the
additions to the pool of knowledge on leadership were not made known
until the study of psychology was made more fashionable by the likes of
Freud and Jung. Management, it appears, is a tool to better the bottom
line and productivity, whereas leadership is one of those studies that
is to be improved through the person’s ability to be in touch with their
personality, traits, motives and effects on the human elements of
There appears be some coincidence in the timing of
the juxtaposition of the terms “management” and “leadership” and the
correlation to the fact that most literature post 1950 seems to cross
pollinate the two phrases. It is quite possible that this, the
historical time for post war boom, is where production was at record
highs and management of production was not as key as the management of
people Possibly drawn from a social recognition that people were not to
be managed, but rather, they were to be valued members of the team, and
therefore, to be led – it is speculative, but it appears evident that
entering the 1960’s, most literature intertwines the “leaders” and the
“managers” into the same professional classification.
(1923) posits that people carry specific traits and that those traits
cannot be altered. However, much time effort and money has been placed
into the study of both management and leadership traits, tendencies,
styles, and successes. Why is this? One belief is that Jung only half
analyzes the person and that more than your traits influence your
leadership potential (de Charon, 2003). This affords the opportunity
for you to learn skills necessary to become a better leader, even if
that means understanding who you are and what your tendencies are, in
order to counteract them. Jung’s work with personality traits has
become the hallmark to virtually every professional development and
personal development course on the market. Jung stipulates that every
person has any combination of sixteen different personality types. By
definition, knowing these personality types helps you to better
negotiate your way through the situation in order to attain the maximum
output desired (Anastasi, 1998).
Running in concert to Jung’s
ideas are those of Henry Mintzberg. Mintzberg stipulates that much has
changed since Fayol’s assessment in 1916; gone are the days when the
“picture of a manager was a reflective planner, organizer, leader, and
controller” (Pavett & Lau, 1983). Mintzberg breaks the manager’s job
into ten roles, divided into three areas: interpersonal, informational,
and decisional (2004):
(Lussier & Achua, 2007).
Ironically, in today’s
interpretation of a leader, one would be hard pressed to find a leader
whom is unable to do all of the above, and then some. Mintzberg, in
later publications, however, goes much further in his assessment of
managers and their roles in the organization. In a collaborative effort
with Jonathon Gosling, the two determine the five mindsets of a manager
(2003). They break the five mindsets into:
1. Managing self:
the reflective mindset; where the effective manager is able to reflect
upon the history (current and aged) to create a better future moving
2. Managing the organization: the analytical mindset;
here referencing a tennis match, where the manager must be cognizant of
the crowd and their reaction, but also focusing on the ball itself.
3. Managing context: the worldly mindset; thinking globally and looking for the unorthodox solution.
Managing relationships: the collaborative mindset; where the manager
is able to engage the employees and moves beyond empowerment [which
“implies that people who know the work best somehow receive the blessing
of their managers to do it (Kibort, 2004)] into commitment.
Managing change: the action mindset; “imagine your organization as a
chariot pulled by wild horses. These horses represent the emotions,
aspirations, and motives of all the people in the organization. Holding
a steady course requires just as much skill in steering around to a new
direction” (Gosling & Mintzberg, 2003, p. 54-63).
Mintzberg conclude with one very interesting point. They stipulate
that, unlike Pavett & Lau (1983) that good managers are able to look
beyond the desire to fix problems with simple reorganizations. In
fact, they argue that hierarchy plays a very small role in the actual
completion of tasks on the unit level and can only lead to more
bureaucracy. Which leads one to ask the question: who is to complete
those unit level tasks and solve those problems associated with people?
is no definitive definition of what leadership is, as it appears to
change form and focus for each individual study. For the purposes of
this paper, however, the definition set forth by Lussier & Achua
(2007) seems to fit best: “Leadership is the influencing process of
leaders and followers to achieve organizational objectives through
change” (p.6). How do we compare leadership and management? The common
misconception is that it is something that should be compared “straight
up”, or “even Steven”. Obviously, there are natural leaders and
persons in positions of social authority throughout every facility, and
yes, it is incumbent upon the managers and leaders to empower those
people to support the overall mission. Admittedly, some of these people
may never become managers, but their role in the facility is of the
However, as managers are an industry specific
entity, it is ridiculous to try and compare leadership to management
outside of the constraint of the management role. Recognizing and
accepting the constraint of the comparison, it must be acknowledged that
in industry, you cannot have good leadership without good management;
and in obvious juxtaposition, poor leadership leads to poor success
rates for the management. It seems apparent that our management staffs
should concentrate on growing employees into leaders, to eventually
become managers; but if the managers themselves are not leaders yet,
then much difficulties will soon befall upon that company. As Peter
Drucker will tell you, it is imperative to build a strong management
team, centered around strong leadership. In thinner times, gone are the
days of two people for every position. Here are the days when a
successful company is able to package good managerial skills into every
leader, and good leadership skills into every manager. Failure to do so
will result in failure to succeed.
“Drucker devotes considerable
effort and space to defining the nature and role of management. This
discussion also focuses on the nature and value of leadership in the
organization. According to Drucker, leadership gives the organization
meaning, defines and nurtures its central values, creates a sense of
mission, and builds the systems and processes that lead to successful
performance” (Wittmeyer, 2003).
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Kevin Vail is a graduate student at Norwich University’s School
of Graduate Studies, in pursuit of his Masters of Science in
The success he receives in this program
is predicated on a highly intensive curriculum, that uses his
experiences from military, education, and corporate training
environments. Both academic research and personal experiences have led
to a wide understanding of leadership styles, traits, and opportunities